Mac Os Catalina Mysql

This article is applicable to MySQL 8.0, which is the successor of MySQL 5.7, where 5 was dropped?!

Introduction to Relational Database and SQL

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Relational Databases

A relational database organizes data in tables. A table has rows (or records) and columns (or fields). Tables are related based on common columns to eliminate data redundancy and ensure data integrity.

Popular Relationship Database Management System (RDBMS) includes:

  • the commercial Oracle, IBM DB2, Microsoft SQL Server and Access, SAP Hana.
  • the open-source MySQL, PostgreSQL, mariaDB, Embedded Apache Derby (Java DB), mSQL (mini-SQL), SQLite, Apache OpenOffice's Base, and mongoDB (non-relational).

Structure Query Language (SQL)

A high-level programming language, called Structure Query Language (SQL), is designed for interacting with the relational databases. SQL defines a set of commands, such as SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE TABLE, DROP TABLE, and etc.

Edgar F. Codd of IBM proposed the Relational Database Model in 1970. SQL, one of the earlier programming language, was subsequently developed by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce at IBM in the early 1970s. Oracle, subsequently, took it to a new height.

ANSI (American National Standard Institute) established the first SQL standard in 1986 (SQL-86 or SQL-87) - adopted by ISO/IEC as 'ISO/IEC 9075' - followed in 1989 (SQL-89), 1992 (SQL-92 or SQL2), 1999 (SQL-99 or SQL3), 2003 (SQL:2003), 2006 (SQL:2006), 2011 (SQL:2011) and 2016 (SQL:2016). However, most of the database vendors have their own directs, e.g., PL/SQL (Oracle), Transact-SQL (Microsoft, SAP), PL/pgSQL (PostgreSQL).

SQL By Examples

A relational database system organizes data in the following hierarchy:

  1. A relational database system contains many databases.
  2. A database comprises tables.
  3. A table have rows (or records) and columns (or fields).

Suppose we have a database called studentdb, a table called class101 in the database with 3 columns (id, name, gpa) and 4 rows as illustrated below. Each column has a data type. We choose: INT (integer) for column id, VARCHAR(50) (variable-length string of up to 50 characters) for name, and FLOAT (floating-point number) for gpa.

SQL (Structure Query Language) defines a set of intuitive commands (such as SELECT, INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE) to interact with relational database system.

SELECT
DELETE
INSERT
UPDATE
CREATE TABLE
DROP TABLE
Notes:
  1. Case Sensitivity: SQL keywords, names (identifiers), strings may or may not be case-sensitive, depending on the implementation.
    • In MySQL, the keywords are NOT case-sensitive. For clarity, I show the keywords in UPPERCASE in this article.
    • For programmers, it is BEST to treat the names (identifiers) and strings as case-sensitive.
      (In MySQL, column-names are always case insensitive; but table-names are case-sensitive in Unix, but case-insensitive in Windows (confused!!). Case-sensitivity in string comparison depends on the collating sequence used (?!).)
  2. String: SQL strings are enclosed in single quotes. But most implementations (such as MySQL) accept both single and double quotes.

Introduction to MySQL Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)

SQL is a programming language for interacting with relational databases. On the other hand, MySQL is a software - a Relational Database Management System.

MySQL is one of the most used, industrial-strength, open-source and free Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). MySQL was developed by Michael 'Monty' Widenius and David Axmark in 1995. It was owned by a Swedish company called MySQL AB, which was bought over by Sun Microsystems in 2008. Sun Microsystems was acquired by Oracle in 2010.

Mysql

MySQL is successful, not only because it is free and open-source (there are many free and open-source databases, such as PostgreSQL, Apache Derby (Java DB), mSQL (mini SQL), SQLite and Apache OpenOffice's Base), but also for its speed, ease of use, reliability, performance, connectivity (full networking support), portability (run on most OSes, such as Unix, Windows, macOS), security (SSL support), small size, and rich features. MySQL supports all features expected in a high-performance relational database, such as transactions, foreign key, replication, subqueries, stored procedures, views and triggers.

MySQL is often deployed in a LAMP (Linux-Apache-MySQL-PHP), WAMP (Windows-Apache-MySQL-PHP), or MAMP (macOS-Apache-MySQL-PHP) environment. All components in LAMP is free and open-source, inclusive of the Operating System.

Mac

The mother site for MySQL is https://www.mysql.com. The ultimate reference for MySQL is the 'MySQL Reference Manual', available at https://dev.mysql.com/doc. The reference manual is huge - the PDF has over 3700 pages!!!

MySQL operates as a client-server system over TCP/IP network. The server runs on a machine with an IP address on a chosen TCP port number. The default TCP port number for MySQL is 3306. Users can access the server via a client program, connecting to the server at the given IP address and TCP port number.

MariaDB

Extracted from Wiki: MariaDB is a community-developed, commercially supported fork of the MySQL relational database management system (RDBMS), intended to remain free and open-source software under the GNU General Public License. Development is led by some of the original developers of MySQL, who forked it due to concerns over its acquisition by Oracle Corporation in 2009.

How to Install MySQL 8.0 and Get Started with SQL Programming

I want you to install MySQL on your own machine, because I want you to learn how to install, customize and operate complex industrial software system. Installation could be the hardest part in this exercise.

Step 0: Create a directory to keep all your works

IMPORTANT: Before getting started, check that you have a few GBs of Free Spaces.

Create a directory to keep all your works called:

  • (For Windows) 'c:myWebProject'.
  • (For macOS/Linux) '~/myWebProject' where '~' denotes your home directory.

Use your graphical interface, e.g., File Explorer (Windows), or Finder (macOS) to verify this directory. (Of course you can use your graphical interface to create this directory!)

For novices: It is important to follow this step. Otherwise, you will be out-of-sync with this article and will not be able to find your files later.

Step 1: Download and Install MySQL

For Windows

  1. Download MySQL Community Server 'ZIP ARCHIVE' from https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/:
    1. Under 'General Availability (GA) Releases' tab.
    2. Under 'MySQL Community Server 8.0.{xx}', where {xx} is the latest update number ⇒ In 'Select Operating System', choose 'Microsoft Windows'.
    3. Under 'Other Downloads', download 'Windows (x86, 64-bit), ZIP ARCHIVE (193MB) (mysql-8.0.{xx}-winx64.zip)'.
    4. Under 'MySQL Community Downloads', there is NO need to 'Login' or 'Sign up' - Just click 'No thanks, just start my downloads!'.
  2. UNZIP the downloaded file into your project directory 'C:myWebProject'. MySQL will be unzipped as 'c:myWebProjectmysql-8.0.{xx}-winx64'. (Right click on the file ⇒ Extract All ⇒ Choose the destination folder as 'c:myWebProject'.)
    For EASE OF USE, we shall shorten and rename the directory to 'c:myWebProjectmysql'. Take note and remember your MySQL installed directory!!!
  3. (NEW since MySQL 5.7.7) Initialize the database: Start a CMD (as administrator) ('Search' button ⇒ Enter 'cmd' ⇒ Right-Click on 'Command Prompt' ⇒ Run as Administrator) and issue these commands: During the installation, a superuser called root is created with a temporary password, as shown above. TAKE NOTE of the PASSWORD, COPY and SAVE it somewhere, and also TAKE A PICTURE!!!
    NOTE: If error 'VCRUNTIME140_1.dll was not found' occurs, check HERE.
  4. If you make a mistake or forgot your password, DELETE the entire MySQL directory 'C:myWebProjectmysql', and REPEAT step 2 and 3.

For macOS

Notes: The latest version of MySQL (8.0.23) works with macOS Catalina (10.15) and Big Slur (11). If you are running older version of macOS, you may need to find an archived version of MySQL @ https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/ ⇒ Archive.

  1. Download the MySQL Community Server 'DMG Archive' from https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/:
    1. Under 'General Availability (GA) Releases' tab.
    2. Under 'MySQL Community Server 8.0.{xx}', where {xx} is the latest update number ⇒ In 'Select Operating System', choose the 'macOS'.
    3. Select the appropriate 'macOS 10.15 (x86, 64-bit) DMG Archive' for macOS 10.15 or 11 (mysql-8.0.{xx}-macos10.15-x86_64.dmg).
      • To check your OS version ⇒ Click the 'Apple' logo ⇒ 'About this Mac'.
      • To check whether your macOS is 32-bit or 64-bit ⇒ Read http://support.apple.com/kb/ht3696. Unless you have a dinosaur-era machine, it should be 64-bit!
    4. There is NO need to 'Login' or 'Sign up' - Just click 'No thanks, just start my download'.
  2. To install MySQL (See https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/osx-installation-pkg.html for screen shots):
    1. Go to 'Downloads' ⇒ Double-click '.dmg' file downloaded.
    2. Double-click the 'mysql-8.0.{xx}-osx-10.{xx}-x86_64.pkg'.
    3. In 'Introduction', click 'Continue'.
    4. In 'License', choose 'Agree'.
    5. In 'Installation Type', click 'Install'.
    6. In 'Configuration', choose 'Use Strong Password Encryption', and enter a password for the 'root' user. Make sure you remember your password.
    7. MySQL will be installed in '/usr/local/mysql'. Take note of this installed directory!!
    8. Eject the '.dmg' file.
  3. If you make a mistake or forgot your password, stop the server (Click 'Apple' Icon ⇒ System Preferences ⇒ MySQL ⇒ Stop).
    Goto /usr/local (via Finder ⇒ Go ⇒ GoTo Folder ⇒ type /usr/local) and remove all the folders beginning with 'mysql..', e.g., 'mysql-8.0.{xx}..' and 'mysql', and Re-run Step 2.

For Ubuntu

Refer to 'How to install MySQL on Ubuntu'.


I shall assume that MySQL is installed in directory 'c:myWebProjectmysql' (for Windows) or '/usr/local/mysql' (for macOS). But you need to TAKE NOTE OF YOUR MySQL INSTALLED DIRECTORY. Hereafter, I shall denote the MySQL installed directory as <MYSQL_HOME> in this article.

Step 3: Start the 'Server'

The MySQL is a client-server system. The database is run as a server application. Users access the database server via a client program, locally or remotely thru the network, as illustrated:

  1. The server program is called 'mysqld' (with a suffix 'd', which stands for daemon - a daemon is a non-interactive process running in the background).
  2. The client program is called 'mysql' (without the 'd').

The programs mysqld and mysql are kept in the 'bin' sub-directory of the MySQL installed directory.

Startup Server

For Windows

To start the database server, launch a new CMD shell:

Note: The --console option directs the output messages to the console. Without this option, you will see a blank screen.

For macOS

The EASY WAY: Via graphical control. Click 'Apple' Icon ⇒ System Preferences ⇒ MySQL ⇒ Start or Stop.

The MySQL database server is now started, and ready to handle clients' requests.

Anything that can possibly go wrong, does! Read 'How to Debug'.

Shutdown Server

For Windows

The quickest way to shut down the database server is to press Ctrl-C to initiate a normal shutdown. DO NOT KILL the server via the window's CLOSE button.

Observe these messages from the MySQL server console:

For macOS

The EASY WAY: Via the graphical control. Click 'Apple' Icon ⇒ System Preferences ⇒ MySQL ⇒ Stop.

WARNING: You should properly shutdown the MySQL server. Otherwise, you might corrupt the database and might have problems restarting it. BUT, if you encounter problem shutting down the server normally, you may kill the 'mysqld' process in Task Manager (for Windows); or Activity Monitor (for macOS); or System Monitor (for Ubuntu).

Step 4: Start a 'Client'

Recall that the MySQL is a client-server system. Once the server is started, one or more clients can be connected to the database server. A client could be run on the same machine (local client); or from another machine over the network (remote client).

To login to the MySQL server, you need to provide a username and password. During the installation, MySQL creates a superuser called 'root' with a temporary password. I hope that you have taken note of this password! Microsoft office upgrade for mac. (Otherwise, re-install!)

The MySQL installation provides a command-line client program called 'mysql'. (Recall that the server program is called 'mysqld' with a suffix 'd'; the client program does not have the suffix 'd').

Let's start a command-line client with the superuser 'root'.

First, make sure that the server is running. See previous step to re-start the server if it has been shutdown.

For Windows

Start Another NEW CMD shell to run the client (You need to keep the CMD that run the server):

For macOS

Open a NEW 'Terminal' and issue these commands to start a MySQL client with superuser root:

(Skip Unless..) Read 'How to Debug'.

Step 5: Change the Password for the Superuser 'root'

As mentioned earlier, the MySQL installation creates a superuser called 'root' with a temporary random password. 'root' is a privileged user that can do anything, including deleting all the databases. You are required to change the root's password immediately after logging in.

Notes: If you get stuck entering a command, press Ctrl-C to abort the current command.

Changing the Password for 'root'

Let's continue with our client session started earlier.

Re-Start a Client as 'root' with the New Password

We have just changed the password for root and exited the client. Start a client and login as root again. Enter the password when prompted.

For macOS

Step 6: Create a New User

The superuser 'root' is privileged, which is meant for database administration and is not meant for operational. We shall create a new user - let's call it 'myuser' - with a lesser privilege. To create a new user, start a client with superuser 'root':

Explanation
  • CREATE USER 'myuser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'xxxx'
    We use the command 'create user' to create a new user called 'myuser'@'localhost', who can login to the server locally from the same machine (but not remotely from another machine), with password 'xxxx'.
  • GRANT ALL ON *.* TO 'myuser'@'localhost'
    The newly created user has NO privilege to perform any database operation including select. We use the 'grant' command to grant 'all' the privileges (including select, insert, delete, and so on) to this new user on ALL the databases and ALL the tables ('on *.*'). This new user, in practice, has the same privilege as root, except that it cannot issue grant command. For production, you should grant only the necessary privileges on selected databases and selected tables, e.g., 'grant select, insert, update on studentdb.*' - it can issue select, insert and update (but no delete, create/drop table) on ALL the tables of the database studentdb only.

Step 7: Create a new Database, a new Table in the Database, Insert Records, Query and Update

Recall that the MySQL server organizes data in the following hierarchy:

  1. A system contains many databases.
  2. A database contains many tables.
  3. A table contains rows (records) and columns (fields).

Let's create a database called 'studentdb', and a table called 'class101' in the database. The table shall have three columns: id (of the type INT - integer), name (of the type VARCHAR(50) - variable-length string of up to 50 characters), gpa (of the type FLOAT - floating-point number).

CAUTION: Programmers don't use blank and special characters in NAMES (database names, table names, column names). It is either not supported, or will pose you many more challenges.

Tips on Client's Session

Before we proceed, here are some tips on using the client:

  • You need to terminate your command with a semicolon (;), which sends the command to the server for processing. E.g.,
  • A command can span several lines. The prompt for subsequent lines changes to -> to denote continuation. You need to terminate the command with a semicolon (;). E.g., In other words, if you forget to type ';', you can type the ';' on the next line.
  • You can use c to cancel (abort) the current command. E.g.,
  • If you open a single/double quote, without closing it, the continuation prompt changes to '> or '> (instead of ->). For example,
  • You can also press Ctrl-C to abort the current command.
  • You can use up/down arrow keys to retrieve the previous/next commands, from the 'command history'.
  • (For Windows 10) You should enable Copy/Paste functions of CMD shell. To enable Copy/Paste, click the CMD's icon ⇒ Properties ⇒ Options ⇒ Edit Options ⇒ Check 'Enable Ctrl key shortcuts'. You can then use Ctrl-C/Ctrl-V for Copy/Paste.
SQL Programming

Let's start a client with our newly-created user 'myuser'.

Exercises:
  1. Select records with names starting with letter 'K'. (Hints: name like 'K%', see Section 'SQL by Examples')
  2. Select records with names NOT starting with letter 'K'. (Hints: name NOT like ..)
  3. Select records with gpa between 4.35 and 4.65. (Hints: test-1 AND test-2)
  4. Select records with names having a letter 'e'. (Hints: name like '%e%')
  5. Select records with names having a letter 'e' or 'a'. (Hints: test-1 OR test-2)
  6. Select records with names having a letter 'e' and gpa ≥ 4.5.

Mac Os Big Sur

(Skip Unless.. ) Read 'How to Debug'.

More Exercises

  1. Show all the databases.
  2. Create a new database called 'ABCTrading'.
  3. Set the 'ABCTrading' database as the default database.
  4. Show all the tables in the default database.
  5. Create a new table called 'products' with the columns and type indicated below.
  6. Show the table description.
  7. Insert the above records and list all the records.
  8. List records with name containing 'Pencil'.
  9. List records with price ≥ 1.0.
  10. Increase the price of all items by 10%, and list all the records.
  11. Remove 'Pen Red' from the table, and list all the records.

Many-to-many Relationship

In a bookstore, a book is written by one or more authors; an author may write zero or more books. This is known as a many-to-many relationship. It is IMPOSSIBLE to capture many-to-many relationship in a SINGLE table (or one spreadsheet) with a fixed number of columns, without duplicating any piece of information! For example, if you organize the data in the table below, you will not know how many author columns to be used; and you need to repeat all the data for repeating authors.

The many-to-many relationship between books and authors can be modeled with 3 tables, as shown below. A books table contains data about books (such as title and price); an authors table contains data about the authors (such as name and email). A table called books_authors joins the books and authors tables and captures the many-to-many relationship between books and authors.

Exercises
  1. Create a database called 'mybookstore'.
  2. Use 'mybookstore' as the default database.
  3. Create 3 tables 'books', 'authors', and 'books_authors' in the database 'mybookstore', with column names and types as shown in the database diagram.
  4. Insert the respective records into the tables, and list the contents of each of the tables.
  5. Try this query and explain the output:
  6. Try this query and observe how the tables are joined:
  7. List all the books (title, price, qty) by 'Tan Ah Teck' with price less than 20.
  8. List all the authors (name and email) for the book title 'Java for Dummies'.
  9. List all the books (title, price, qty) and all the authors (name and email) for books with title beginning with 'Java' (Hints: title LIKE 'Java%').

(Optional) Backup and Restore Databases

Backup via 'mysqldump' Utility Program

You can use the 'mysqldump' utility program to back up (i) the entire server (all databases), (ii) selected databases, or (ii) selected tables of a database. The 'mysqldump' program generates a SQL script that can later be executed to re-create the databases, tables and their rows.

For example, the following command backups the entire 'studentdb' database to a SQL script called 'backup_studentdb.sql'.

For macOS

Study the output file, which contains CREATE DATABASE, CREATE TABLE and INSERT statements to re-create the database and tables dumped earlier.

Restore via 'source' command in a mysql client

Mac Os Catalina Mysql Ubuntu

You can restore from the backup by running the 'source' command in a MySQL client. For example, to restore the studentdb backup earlier:

For macOS

Summary of Frequently-Used Commands

(For Windows) Starting MySQL Server and Client
(For macOS) Starting MySQL Server and Client
Frequently-used MySQL Commands

MySQL commands are NOT case sensitive.

(Skip Unless..) How to Debug?

'Everything that can possibly go wrong will go wrong.' The most important thing to do is to find the ERROR MESSAGES!!!

'VCRUNTIME140_1.dll was not found' when Running the Initialization for Windows

CAUSE: You do not have the required 'Microsoft Visual C++ redistributable runtime'.

SOLUTION: Goto 'The latest supported Visual C++ downloads' @ https://support.microsoft.com/en-gb/help/2977003/the-latest-supported-visual-c-downloads ⇒ Download 'x64: vc_redist.x64.exe' ⇒ run the executable to install 'Microsoft Visual C++ 2015-2019 redistributable (x64)' ⇒ Restart your computer ⇒ You can find 'vcruntime140_1.dll' under 'C:WindowsSystem32'.

Cannot Start the MySQL Server after Installation

First of all, check if you have already started an instance of MySQL Server:

  • For Windows, start the 'Task Manager', select 'Processes' and look for 'mysqld' processes. 'End' all the 'mysqld' processes.
  • For macOS, start the 'Activity Monitor', select 'All Processes' and look for 'mysqld' processes. 'Kill' all the 'mysqld' processes.
  • For Ubuntu, start the 'System Monitor' and look for 'mysqld' processes. 'Kill' all the 'mysqld' processes.

'Permission Denied' in creating temp files under macOS

No more disk space?!

Cannot Start the 'mysql' Client

Error Using the 'mysql' Client

Link to MySQL References & Resources

Summary: This blog helps you repair your APFS or HFS partition on Mac SSD or hard drive. Download the free-to-try data recovery software for Mac to rescue APFS or HFS partition data.


Table of Content1. Repair Damaged APFS or HFS Partition by Using Disk Utility
2. Recover Failing or Irreparable Partition Data by Using Software

If you are using macOS Big Sur, Catalina, or Mojave, then most likely, your internal storage drive is partitioned in APFS format. In case your Mac is running on macOS Sierra or OS X Lion, the internal drive partition may be in the HFS+ format. Many users, these days, are upgrading their macOS and moving to APFS to be on par with the current technology.

If your APFS or HFS partition is not functioning properly due to aging or usage, repair the partition immediately to avoid data loss. The next section describes how to fix an APFS or HFS+ partition.

1. Repair Damaged APFS or HFS Partition by Using Disk Utility

You must be using Disk Utility in your system to perform disk management tasks. You can also use it to repair your logically damaged APFS or HFS partition.

To fix your APFS or HFS partition using Disk Utility, do the following:

Step 1) Press Command + Space Bar to launch Spotlight, and then type ‘disk utility’ and press Return. The Disk Utility window will open. Or else, navigate to Finder > Applications > Utilities > Disk Utility. Double-click the Disk Utility icon to launch it on your Mac.

Step 2) Select an APFS or HFS partition from the left pane of the Disk Utility window. From the top pane, click the First Aid tab, then click Run. Disk Utility will analyze the partition and repair any logical errors.

Step 3) If Disk Utility can’t repair the partition, it suggests the next action course. For instance, “Disk Utility fails to repair the startup disk. Backup as much data as possible and erase this drive.” Read More: APFS Data Recovery

Mac Os Catalina Mysql Server

To repair “Macintosh HD,” the partition that stores your macOS, perform the following steps:

Step 1) Start or restart your Mac, then immediately press and hold Command + R keys; release the keys when the Apple logo appears. Your Mac will boot into macOS Recovery mode.

Step 2) From macOS Utilities, select Disk Utility, then click Continue. From the sidebar of Disk Utility, select Macintosh HD the startup disk, then click the First Aid tab. Next, click Run to initiate the repair process.

Step 3) When the repair is unsuccessful, recover data from the drive using a data recovery software for Mac (as explained next). Next, erase the drive and reinstall macOS. Finally, restore the recovered data.

2. Recover Failing or Irreparable Partition Data by Using Software

When your non-startup Mac APFS or HFS volume is severely corrupt or inaccessible, you won’t be able to back up its data as you would typically do. In such a scenario, you need to recover your data using a data recovery software for Mac. The recovery steps are as follows:

Step 1) Download and install the *trial version of Stellar Data Recovery Premium for Mac on your MacBook Pro/Air, iMac, or Mac mini.

Step 2) Launch the software, and from the “Select What to Recover screen,” specify the type of file that you wish to recover, then click Next.

Step 3) From the “Select Location” screen, select the non-startup APFS or HFS partition, toggle on Deep Scan, and then click Scan. Allow the software to scan your drive.

Step 4) Preview the scanned files, select the required ones, then click Recover. Specify a different drive location, then click Save. Navigate to the save location to check all your recovered data.

*Trial version of Stellar Data Recovery Premium for Mac allows free scan and preview but needs activation to recover data. Activate the software with complete assurance as it has a 30-day money-back guarantee.

In case your Macintosh HD is severely corrupt or inaccessible, your Mac won’t boot. In such a case, use a working Mac to run the activated software, then create a recovery USB drive. Connect the recovery drive to your non-booting Mac and access your data. Read More.

Apart from recovering data, Stellar Data Recovery Premium for Mac helps you repair your corrupt photos and videos. Use the file repair feature in case you find some of your recovered photo and video files corrupted due to bad sectors on the Mac partition.

Conclusion

This blog focused exclusively on repairing a corrupt Mac startup or non-startup APFS or HFS partition. But if macOS can’t fix your disk, you need to use Stellar Data Recovery Premium for Mac to salvage your data. The software has four unique features to provide you with data recovery, drive monitoring, and repair module for photos and videos. For any query related to APFS or HFS partition repair and recovery, ask us in the comment box below.